Equal Justice under Law- these words are written above the main way into the Supreme Court Building of the US. It expresses the fundamental duty of the Supreme Court of the United States. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the US for all cases and disagreements. These cases arise under the Constitution or the laws of the US.
It is the final arbiter of the law. The Supreme Court ensures the American people the promise of equal justice under law. Therefore, it functions as guardian and interpreter of the US Constitution.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes stated that the Supreme Court is distinctly American in concept and function. Some other courts in the world have the same power of constitutional explanation and not any court has exercised its power with much authority.
The French political observer Alexis de Tocqueville observed the outstanding status of the Supreme Court in the history of countries and jurisprudence.
He stated that the representative system of government has been adopted in various states of Europe but he is not aware that any state of the globe has up till now organized a judicial power in the same way as the Americans. He also said that a more striking judicial authority was never organized by any people.
The exclusive position of the Supreme Court arises from the deep pledge of the American people to the Rule of Law and constitutional authority. The United States has established an unparalleled strength of mind to conserve and safeguard its written Constitution.
In that way, it provides the American “experiment in democracy” with the oldest in print Constitution even now in power. The Constitution of the United States is a vigilantly impartial file. It is developed to provide for a national government adequately powerful and flexible to meet the needs of the republic.
Yet, it is adequately limited to safeguard the guaranteed rights of US citizens. It allows stability between society’s need for harmony and the person’s right to freedom. The Framers of the US Constitution created three independent and co-equal branches of government to ensure these ends.
The multifaceted role of the Supreme Court in this system obtains from its authority to annul legislation or executive conduct which it considers that conflicts with the Constitution.
This is the power of “judicial review” of the US court. The US court has a vital responsibility in ensuring individual rights and maintaining a “living Constitution” whose broad specifications are recurrently applied to the complex new state of affairs.